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The androgen system is closely linked to sexual development and behavior. Subjects also received a comprehensive clinical screening. Independent of their sexual preference, child sexual offenders showed signs of elevated prenatal androgen exposure compared with non-offending pedophiles and controls. The methylation status of the androgen receptor gene was also higher in child sexual offenders, indicating lower functionality of the testosterone system, accompanied by lower peripheral testosterone levels.
In addition, there was an interaction effect on methylation levels between offense status and androgen receptor functionality. Notably, markers of prenatal androgenization and the methylation status of the androgen receptor gene were correlated with the total number of sexual offenses committed. This study demonstrates alterations of the androgen system on a prenatal, epigenetic, and endocrine level.
None of the major findings was specific for pedophilia, but they were for CSO. The findings support theories of testosterone-linked abnormalities in early brain development in delinquent behavior and suggest possible interactions of testosterone receptor gene methylation and plasma testosterone with environmental factors.
Neither the etiology of CSO nor that of pedophilia is well understood. Neurobiological factors have been considered in multifactorial models of both sexual preference and delinquent behavior 6. Androgens have been ascribed a crucial role in modulating sexual drive and function, as well as violent and aggressive behavior 7 — However, the relationship between androgens and behavior is complex and may depend on different external factors, as well as the age of the organism.
As a result, a number of theories have been developed to explain the role of androgens under different circumstances. One of the most important and well examined is organizational—activational theory, which highlights the effects of sex steroids during critical periods of life perinatal and puberty leading to sustained dimorphic differentiation of the brain organizational effects.